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Subramaniya Bharathiyar was a poet, freedom fighter and social reformer from Tamil Nadu. He was known as Mahakavi Bharathiyar and the laudatory epithet Mahakavi means a great poet.

His songs on nationalism and freedom of India helped to rally the masses to support the Indian Independence Movement in Tamil Nadu.

Subramaniya Bharathiyar was born on 11 th Decemberin a village called Ettayapuram in Tirunelveli District in Tamil Nadu and his childhood name was Subbiah. His father was Chinnaswamy Iyer and his mother was Lakshmi Ammal. At the age of seven, Subbiah started writing poems in Tamil. When he was eleven, he wrote in such a way that even learned men praised him for his great knowledge and skill. In the eleventh year, Subbiah felt that he had to establish his credentials.

He threw a challenge to the eminent men in the assembly of scholars that they should have a contest with him in a debate on any subject without any previous notice or preparation. The contest was held at a special sitting of the Ettayapuram Durbar at which the Rajah the ruler himself was present.

Subbiah efficiently won the debate. In JuneBharathi was hardly fifteen when his marriage took place, and his child-bride was Chellammal. Bharathi left for Benaras which was also known as Kashi and Varanasi. He spent there the next two years with his aunt Kuppammal and her husband Krishna Sivan.

Speedily gaining a fair knowledge of Sanskrit, Hindi and English, he duly passed with credit the Entrance Examination of the Allahabad University. Outwardly, he sported a moustache and a Sikh turban and bharathiag a bold swing in his walk. A poet and a Nationalist. Significantly, a new age in Tamil literature began with Subramaniya Bharathi.


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Most part of his compositions are classifiable as short lyrical outpourings on patriotic, devotional and mystic themes. Bharathi was essentially a lyrical poet. Bharathi is considered as a national poet due to his number of poems of the patriotic flavour through which he exhorted the people to join the independence struggle and work vigorously for the liberation of the country.

Instead of merely being proud of his country he also outlined his vision for a free India. Bharathi as a Journalist. It declared as its motto the three slogans of the French Revolution, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.

It blazed a new trail in Tamil Journalism. In order to proclaim its revolutionary ardour, Bharathi had the weekly printed in red paper. Bharathi resided in Pondicherry for sometime to escape the wrath of the British imperialists. During his exile, Bharathi had the opportunity to mingle with many leaders of the militant wing of the independence movement such as Aurobindo, Lajpat Rai and V. Aiyar, who had also sought asylum in the French, Pondicherry.

From Pondicherry, he guided the Tamil youth of Madras to tread in the path of nationalism. Bharathi entered British India near Cuddalore in November and was promptly arrested.

In his early days of youth he had good relations with Nationalist Tamil Leaders like V. Along with these leaders he used to discuss the problems facing the country due to British rule. His participation and activities in Benaras Session and Surat Session of the Indian National Congress impressed many national leaders about his patriotic fervour. Bharathi had maintained good relations with some of the national leaders and shared his thoughts and views on the nation and offered his suggestions to strengthen the nationalist movement.


Undoubtedly, his wise suggestions and steadfast support to the cause of nationalism rejuvenated many national leaders. Thus Bharathi played a pivotal role in the freedom of India. Bharthi as a social reformer. Bharathi was also against caste system. He declared that there were only two castes-men and women and nothing more than that.

Above all, he himself had removed his sacred thread.

He had also adorned many Dalits with sacred thread. He used to take tea sold in shops run by Muslims. He along with his family members attended church on all festival occasions. He advocated temple entry of Dalits. Kannaan all his reforms, he had to face opposition from his neighbours.

But Bharathi was very clear that unless Indians unite as children of Mother India, they could not achieve freedom. He opposed child marriage, dowry and supported widow remarriage.

Bharathiar – Kavithaigal

Bharathi died on 11 th September Bharathi as a poet, journalist, freedom fighter and social reformer had made a great impact not only on the Tamil society but also on the entire human society. He followed what buarathiar he preached and it is here that his greatness is manifested. His prophecy during the colonial period about the independence of India came true after two and half decades after his demise. His vision about a glorious India has been taking a shape in the post-Independence era.

Bharathi did not live for himself but for the people and nation.

That is why he is respectfully knnan as Bharathiyar. The views expressed in the article are personal. A poet and a Nationalist Significantly, a new age in Tamil literature began with Subramaniya Bharathi. Bharthi as a social reformer Bharathi was also against caste system.